Dramatic failure of materials in drilling platforms at sea

Oil platforms, offshore platforms, or more colloquially oil rigs are huge engineering structures for enabling to drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, or to temporarily store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing. In many cases, the platform contains facilities to house the workforce as well.

Depending on the circumstances, the platform may be fixed to the ocean floor, may consist of an artificial island, or may float. Remote subsea wells may also be connected to a platform by flow lines and by umbilical connections. These subsea solutions may consist of one or more subsea wells, or of one or more manifold centres for multiple wells.

Material failure on oil platforms and the assoiated gear parts is unforging as huge ocean portions can be polluted and many animals killed.

 

A few examples of collapsed platforms are :

 

Alexander L. Kielland
In 1980, the semi-submersible accommodation rig Alexander L. Kielland capsized during a storm after a leg support brace failed.    

 

Al Mariyah    Al Mariyah
Whilst skidding the rig cantilever, the jack-up Al Mariyah collapsed and lost its derrick onto the platform below.    

 

Maersk Victory    Maersk Victory
A punch-through caused extensive damage to the Maersk Victory while working in Australian waters in 1996.    

 

Ocean Prince    Ocean Prince
The UK-built semi-sub Ocean Prince, finder of the first UK offshore oil, broke up off England's east coast during a storm in 1967.    

 

Parker 14-J    Parker 14-J Drilling Barge
Failure of the jacking mechanism caused the Parker rig to collapse in 2003.    

 

Ranger I    Ranger I
After being jacked up on location in 1979, the rig Ranger I collapsed due to fatigue in the stern leg.    

 

Sea Gem    Sea Gem
One of the first drilling rigs in the North Sea, the Sea Gem collapsed in 1965 as a result of metal fatigue.    

 

Transocean 3
A rare self-elevating semi-submersible, the Transocean III capsized and sank East of Orkney after a jackable leg broke away in 1974.

 

Bohai 2
In 1979, the jack-up Bohai 2 capsized and sank in a storm while on tow off the coast of China.    

 

Interocean II    Interocean II
After a dramatic crew rescue in 1989, the Interocean II sank in a North Sea storm after towline failure.    


Key Biscayne    Key Biscayne
The Key Biscayne capsized and sank off Australia's west coast in 1983 after flooding and towline failure.    


Ocean Express    Ocean Express
Another casualty of towline failure, the Ocean Express sank in 1976 during a storm in Gulf of Mexico.    


Ocean Master II    Ocean Master II
The Ocean Master II sank off West Africa in 1977 as a result of structural problems and bad weather.    


Mr Bice    Mr Bice
Mr Bice sank in 1998 in the Gulf of Mexico after structural failure and flooding.    

 

Rowan Gorilla I    Rowan Gorilla I
The Rowan Gorilla I was crossing the North Atlantic in 1988 when it capsized and sank after structural failure caused by bad weather.    


West Gamma    West Gamma
A storm in 1990 caused structural failure and flooding to the West Gamma, resulting in its sinking after towline loss.

 

Lake Peigneur    Lake Peigneur
In 1980, a Wilson Brothers rig on Lake Peigneur drilled into a salt mine, leading to the flooding and eventual collapse of the mine.    


Ocean Ranger    Ocean Ranger
A ballast control malfunction caused the Ocean Ranger to capsize during a ferocious storm in the North Atlantic in 1982, with the loss of all hands.    


Petrobras P36    Petrobras P36
In 2001, an explosion destabilised the P36 production rig in the Campos Basin, Brazil, eventually causing it to sink.


Sleipner A Platform    Sleipner A Platform
A design error resulted in the structural failure in 1991 of the gravity base unit of the original Sleipner A platform.

Systems of drilling platforms
Failure of drilling platform
ALEXANDER L. KIELLAND oil platform collapsed
Drilling platform failure
Offshore Oil Rig Mishaps: Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
Deep water horizon
THUNDER HORSE PLATFORM, Gulf of Mexico, damaged by storm
desaster of Alexander Kielland platform
Deepwater Horizon on fire
Piper Alpha Oil Rig at its end
Blow-out that occurred in the Montara Field, offshore Kimberly Coast in Western Australia
Failure of the X70 grade steel used in offshore drill risers. This one failed in the Deepwater Horizon catastrophy.
Ekofisk in storm: Steel keeping its promise.

Oil Rig Incidents

Rig Incident List

Key:

DS

Drillship

JU

Jack-up

LR

Land rig

P

Platform

SS

Semi-submersible

S

Ship

 

Rig Name / Well name

Date

Location

Fatalities

Type

Incident

Comments

60 Yrs of Azerbaijan

1983-09-09

Caspian Sea

5

JU

Sinking

Seabed failure, volcanic action

Actinia

1993-02-00

Vietnam

-

SS

Blowout

Major release

Adriatic IV

2004-08-10

Med Sea, Egypt

0

JU

Blowout

Fire destroyed rig and platform

Adriatic VII

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Major damage

Al Baz

1989-04-28

Nigeria

5

JU

Blowout

Burned & sank

Alexander L. Kielland

1980-03-27

Norwegian CS

123

SS

Collapse

Fatigue fracture caused capsize

Ali Baba

1984-00-00

UK CS

-

SS

Grounding

Broke moorings

Al Mariyah

2000-04-15

Persian Gulf

4

JU

Collapse

Jack failure while skidding derrick

AMDP-1

1975-09-00

Persian Gulf

-

JU

Sinking

Sank in tow. ArabAmOilCo

Arabdrill 19

2002-09-30

Saudi Arabia

0

JU

Blowout

Fire destroyed rig and platform

Atlantic No. 3

1948-03-08

Alberta, Canada

0

LR

Blowout

Major release, fire

Baku 2

1976-00-00

Caspian Sea

-

JU

Sinking

Capsized, sank, PT?, new rig

Banjar Panji-1

2006-05-29

Java, Indonesia

-

LR

Blowout

Mud volcano, major release

Banzala

1982-00-00

Cabinda, Angola

0

JU

Sinking

Lost, shallow gas blowout

Bigfoot 2

1987-10-20

GOM

-

JU

-

2 bow legs PT

Blake IV

1992-09-29

Greenhill bay, GOM

0

JU

Blowout

Major release, fire

Bob Buschman

1986-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

Field Co

Bohai 2

1979-11-25

Bay of Bohai, China

72

JU

Sinking

Storm. Sank in tow.

Bohai 3

1980-06-15

-

70

JU

Blowout

Fire

Bohai 6

1981-00-00

West Pacific

-

JU

-

Slipped on location

Bombay High North

2005-07-27

Indian Ocean

22

P

Fire

Boat impact

Bourbon Dolphin

2007-04-12

Atlantic Ocean

8

S

Sinking

Capsize, sunk

Byford Dolphin

1983-11-05

Norwegian CS

5

SS

Explosion

Diving accident

Cerveza

1983-00-00

-

-

P

Blowout

Abandon

Chevron Typhoon

2005-09-27

GOM

0

P

Hurricane

Major damage

Constellation

1969-11-25

UK CS

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Cormorant A

1989-04-18

UK CS

0(3?)

P

Explosion

Gas leak

C. P. Baker

1964-06-30

GOM

22

DS

Blowout

Catamaran type, explosion and fire

Dan Prince

1980-10-22

Alaska, North Pacific

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

DB29

1991-08-15

South China Sea

22

Barge

Sinking

Typhoon

Deep Sea Driller

1976-03-01

Norwegian CS

6

SS

Grounding

Storm

Deepwater II

1957-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Sank after hurricane

Dixilyn Field 81

1980-08-09

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Hurricane Allen, on loc

Dixilyn Field 82

1985-06-00

Indian Ocean

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Dixilyn Field 83

1986-11-20

Indian Ocean

-

JU

Sinking

Stbd leg PT, capsized, off Bombay

Dixilyn Julie Ann

1968-03-13

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Dixilyn 150

1980-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

-

Dolphin Titan 143

1977-09-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

Sank in tow, salvaged, retired

Drake Point L-67

1969-00-00

Canadian Arctic

-

LR

Blowout

Ice volcano

Dresser 2

1968-04-28

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Overturned due to soil failure

D M Saunders

1993-11-00

Arabian Gulf

0

JU

Sinking

Flooded in bad weather on tow

Ekofisk A

1975-00-00

Norwegian CS

3?/6

P

Fire

-

Ekofisk B

1977-04-22

Norwegian CS

0

P

Blowout

Major release

Ekofisk P

1989-00-00

Norwegian CS

0

P

Fire

-

Elefante

1969-00-00

-

0

JU

Fire

Destroyed, Puente Maracaibo Co.

Enchova Central

1984-08-16

Enchova Field, Brazil

37

P

Blowout

Fire, lifeboat fell to sea

Enchova Central

1988-04-24

Enchova Field, Brazil

0

P

Blowout

Destroyed by fire

Ensco 51

2001-03-01

Eugene Isl Blk 273, GOM

0

JU

Blowout

Setting casing string, fire

Ensco 64

2004-09-15

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Major damage

Estrellita

1969-03-00

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Grounded in extreme weather

Five Sisters

1989-04-00

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Fulmar A

1991-08-00

UK CS

0

P

Explosion

Shell

Funiwa Platform

1980-01-17

Nigeria

0

P

Blowout

Major release

Gatto Selvatico

1976-01-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

AGIP

Gemini

1974-10-09

-

18

JU

-

Punch thru, leg failure

Getty Platform A

1984-05-13

West Cameron, GOM

1

P

Explosion

-

Glomar Arctic II

1985-01-00

UK CS

2

SS

Explosion

Pump room

Glomar Arctic IV

1998-07-00

-

2

SS

Explosion

-

Glomar Baltic I

2001-05-09

GOM

-

JU

Blowout

-

Glomar Grand Isle

1983-02-07

?Indonesia

-

DS

Blowout

Fire

Glomar Java Sea

1983-10-25

S. China Sea

81

DS

Sinking

Capsized in tropical storm Lex

Glomar Labrador I

1988-00-00

-

0

JU

Collision

Merchant ship

Gulfwind

2005-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking?

Wrecked, Chiles Offshore

Harvey Ward

1980-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Mudslide, total loss

Hasbah Platform

1980-10-02

Persian Gulf

19

P

Blowout

Major release

Hercules 25

2005-08-29

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Katrina - derrick fell on rig

High Island III

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Major damage

Interocean II

1989-11-08

UK CS

0

JU

Sinking

Flooded in bad weather on tow

IXTOC-1

1979-06-03

Mexico

0

JU

Blowout

IXTOC 1 - Capped 1980 Mar 23

Jalapa

1996-04-00

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Weather, struc fail, flooding

Jim Cunningham

2004-08-20

Egypt

0

SS

Blowout

Fire

Key Biscayne

1983-09-01

Australia

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather. Salvg 12-83

Keyes Marine 302

1988-02-22

GOM

-

JU

-

PT, legs bent, total loss.

Keyes Marine 303

1990-05-30

GOM

-

JU

Blowout

-

King Christian D18

1970-10-25

Canadian Arctic

-

LR

Blowout

Ice volcano

Lake Peigneur

1980-11-21

Louisiana

0

-

Sinking

Drilled into salt mine

Liberacion

1974-11-00

South America

0

JU

Sinking

Weather, proced, flooding, sunk

Little Bob

1968-08-00

-

7

JU

Blowout

Fire off La. Coral Drilling

Lodgepole

1982-10-17

Alberta, Canada

2

LR

Blowout

Amoco, major H2S release

Lusi Mud Volcano

2006-05-29

Java, Indonesia

-

LR

Blowout

Mud volcano, major release

Maersk Endurer

1980-10-18

Gulf of Suez

?3

JU

Blowout

Derrick collapse, renamed EDC Setty

Maersk Giant

2006-04-23

Norwegian CS

0

JU

Blowout

Shallow gas

Maersk Victory

1996-11-16

South Australia

0

JU

Collapse

Punch-through, leg failure

Main Pass Block 41

1970-02-10

GOM

-

P

Fire

Burned for 2 months

Marine IV

2001-07-13

GOM

-

JU

Blowout

-

Marlin 3

1992-08-27

GOM

-

JU

Hurricane

Major damage, collapse

Marlin 4

1980-00-00

South America

-

JU

Collapse

Legs damaged, seabed slide

Medusa Spar

2004-09-15

GOM

-

P

Hurricane

Damaged

Mighty Servant 2

1999-11-02

Indonesia

5

S

Sinking

Hit rock

Mighty Servant 3

2006-12-06

Angola

0

S

Sinking

Ballast problems

Mississippi Cany. 311A

1987-11-04

GOM

-

P

Blowout

Platform tilted

Mr Bice

1998-06-00

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Mr Gus 1

1957-03-31

GOM

1

JU

Sinking

PT, tilt, capsized H. Audrey

Mr Louie

1963-05-00

German CS

0

JU

Blowout

Crater

Mumbai High North

2005-07-27

Indian Ocean

22

P

Fire

Boat impact

Nabors Dolphin 105

2002-10-02

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Lili - collapse and capsize

Nabors Rig269

1998-07-17

GOM

-

P

Collapse

-

Nabors WorkhorseIX

1980-02-05

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Sank in tow, salvaged, in service

Neptune Gascogne

1983-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

Lost legs Brazil. Later Rigmar151

NFX Platform A

1999-09-09

GOM

-

P

Blowout

Fire

Noble Max Smith

2005-09-09

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Major damage in Rita

Nowruz Platforms

1983-03-00

Persian Gulf

20

P

Fire

Major release

Ocean Champion

1980-12-00

Port Said

0

JU

Grounding

Grounded in bad weather

Ocean Developer

1995-08-00

Northern Angola

-

SS

Sinking

Sank on tow

Ocean Express

1976-04-15

GOM

13

JU

Sinking

Capsized on tow in bad weather

Ocean King

2002-08-09

Grand Isle 93, GOM

-

JU

Blowout

Fire

Ocean Master II

1977-06-00

West Africa

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Ocean Odyssey

1988-09-22

UK CS

1

SS

Blowout

Fire

Ocean Prince

1968-03-06

UK CS

0

SS

Collapse

Broke up in storm

Ocean Ranger

1982-02-15

Hibernia, N. Atlantic

84

SS

Sinking

Storm, Mobil

Ocean Warwick

2005-08-31

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Major damage

Offshore Bahram

1996-01-00

Suez

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather on tow

Okha

1980-10-00

Arctic

0

JU

Grounding

Grounded in bad weather

Orion

1978-02-01

Guernsey, UK

0

JU

Grounding

Broke loose from barge

Oseberg B

1988-00-00

Norwegian CS

0

P

Collision

Sub collision - anchor chain

Parker 14-J

2003-09-11

GOM

0

JU

Collapse

Jacking mechanism failure

Pagura

1965-00-00

-

-

JU

Fire

Saipem

Penrod 52 / Petrel

1965-09-09

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

PT, capsized moving, H. Betsy

Penrod 52

1983-07-20

GOM

0

JU

Blowout

Collapsed during blowout

Penrod 61

1985-10-28

GOM

1?

JU

Sinking

Sank in H. Juan

Petrobras P7

2001-06-19

Bicudo Field, Brazil

0

P

Blowout

Fire

Petrobras P36

2001-03-20

Campos Basin, Brazil

11

P

Sinking

Explosion

Petromar V

1981-08-27

South China Sea

-

DS

Blowout

Sank after blowout

Petronius A

1998-12-03

GOM

0

P

Sinking

Lift failure, dropped module

Piper Alpha

1988-07-06

UK CS

167

P

Fire

Explosion and loss after gas leak

Placid 66

1977-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

Placid Co.

Placid L10a

1983-05-15

SNS, NL

0

P

Blowout

Corrosion

Pool 55

1987-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Soil failure while drilling

Pride 1001E

1997-04-01

GOM

-

P

Blowout

Fire

PSS Chemul

2005-08-29

GOM

0

SS

Hurricane

Major damage

Qatar I

1956-12-00

Arabian Gulf

20

JU

Sinking

Collapsed during tow.

Ranger 1

1979-05-10

GOM

8

JU

Collapse

Fatigue, collapse

(Pool) Ranger 4

1997-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Breakthru/slide into crater

Rigmar 151

1998-01-00

West Atlantic

0

JU

Sinking

Formerly Neptune Gascogne

Roger Buttin 3

1966-02-09

West Africa

-

JU

Sinking

Fast leg penet, capsize, sank

Ron Tappmeyer

1980-10-02

Saudi Arabia

19

JU

Blowout

Hasbah Platform blowout

Rowan Fort Worth

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Rita - Beached, written off

Rowan Gorilla I

1988-12-15

North Atlantic

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather during tow

Rowan Halifax

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Rita - Beached, written off

Rowan Houston

2002-10-02

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Lili - Collapse and capsize

Rowan Louisiana

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Rita - Beached, severe damage

Rowan New Orleans

2005-08-31

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Katrina - Capsized, sank

Rowan Odessa

1994-12-01

GOM

1

JU

Fire

Leg struck pipe. Damaged, repaired

Rowan Odessa

2005-09-28

GOM

0

JU

Hurricane

Rita - missing, sunk?

Saipem Paguro

1965-09-09

Off Ravena, Italy

-

JU

Blowout

Destroyed by fire

Scan Sea

1977-01-12

West Pacific

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather during tow

Seacrest

1989-11-03

Gulf of Thailand

91

DS

Sinking

Typhoon Gay

Sea Gem

1965-12-27

UK CS

13

JU

Collapse

BP, jack collapse, brittle fracture

Sea Quest

1980-01-01

Nigeria

0

SS

Blowout

Sedco 135C, fire, scuttled off Nigeria

SedcoNo8-Rig22

1956-08-10

GOM

4

JU

Sinking

Under construction

Sedco 135F

1979-06-03

Mexico

0

JU

Blowout

IXTOC 1 - Capped 1980 Mar 23

Sedco 252

1989-00-00

Indian Coast

3 lost

JU

Blowout

Fire

Sedco J

1989-04-00

Offshore S. Africa

-

SS

Sinking

Capsized during tow

Shell Mars

2005-08-29

GOM

0

P

Hurricane

Major damage

Ship Shoal 246b

1980-03-09

GOM

0

P

Blowout

Killed after 1 day

Sleipner A

1991-08-23

Norwegian CS

0

P

Sinking

-

Snorre A

2004-11-28

Norwegian CS

0

P

Blowout

Seabed gas blowout

South Timbalier 26

1970-12-01

GOM

4

P

Blowout

Platform lost

Steelhead Platform

1987-12-20

Cook Inlet, Alaska

0

P

Blowout

Fire. Unocal, Penrod rig also lost?

Sundowner 15

1996-01-24

GOM

-

P

Blowout

Fire

Teledyne Movible 16

1989-01-08

GOM

-

JU

Blowout

Total loss

Thunderhorse

2005-07-10

GOM

0

SS

Hurricane

List after Dennis.

Topper I

1980-02-00

GOM

0

JU

Sinking

Valve fail, flooding. Crestwave Co

Topper III

1975-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking

Crestwave Co

Transgulf Rig 10

1959-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Punchthru, capsize b4 move

Transocean 3

1974-01-01

UK CS

0

SS

Collapse

Leg broke, capsize

Transocean 7

2005-00-00

-

-

JU

Sinking?

Wrecked

Treasure Seeker

1984-00-00

Norwegian CS

-

SS

Blowout

Shallow gas

Trinimar Marine W327

1973-08-08

Venezuela

0

P

Blowout

Major release

Ubit Platform

1996-00-00

Nigeria

18

P

Fire

Explosion

Union Oil Platform A

1969-01-28

Dos Cuadras F, OCS, US

0

P

Blowout

Major release

Usumacinta

2007-10-23

Bay of Campeche, GOM

22

JU

Blowout

Storm, major release

Viking Explorer

1988-09-00

SE Borneo

4

DS

Blowout

Explosion and sinking. Total Oil

Vinland

1984-02-22

Sable Island, N. Atlantic

0

SS

Blowout

Shell, Uniacke G-72

W.D.Kent

1976-02-00

Off Dubai

-

JU

Sinking

Sank, hit by barge in storm

West Gamma

1990-08-20

North Sea

0

JU

Sinking

Sank in bad weather during tow

West Vanguard

1985-10-06

Haltenbanken, Norw. NS

1

SS

Blowout

-

Zacateca

1986-10-00

Mexico

-

JU

Blowout

Sank. Perforadora Co

Yum II / Zapoteca

1987-10-10

Bay of Campeche, GOM

0

JU

Blowout

PEMEX

Zapata Enterprize

1985-00-00

Javan coast

0

JU

Blowout

Fire

Zapata Lexington

1984-09-14

GOM

4

JU

Blowout

Fire

Zapata Maverick I

1965-00-00

GOM

-

JU

Sinking

Punch thru, overturn H. Betsy

Zapata Scorpion

1969-11-22

Canary Islands

-

JU

Sinking

Sank in tow

Zapata Topper III

1975-03-00

GOM

-

JU

Blowout

Sank off La.

 

 

 

Acta Mat. 2011, 59, p. 364