Important Classes of Metallic Alloys

Aluminium

Aluminium also forms complex phases such as β–Al–Mg, ξ'–Al–Pd–Mn, and T–Al3Mn.

 

Beryllium

 

Bismuth

 

 

Chromium

 

 

Cobalt

Copper

Gallium

Gold

Indium

Iron

Most iron alloys are steels, with carbon as a major alloying element.

Carbon steels

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes. Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production. Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections. High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.

Recent Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations have given rise to a new variety of steel known as Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS). This material is both strong and ductile so that vehicle structures can maintain their current safety levels while using less material. There are several commercially available grades of AHSS, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferritic and martensitic microstructure to produce a formable, high strength steel.[7] Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austenite at room temperature in normally austenite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain, the austenite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat.Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.

Carbon Steels are often galvanized, through hot-dip or electroplating in zinc for protection against rust.

Stainless steels contain a minimum of 11% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion. Some stainless steels, such as the ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while others, such as the austenitic, are nonmagnetic. Corrosion-resistant steels are abbreviated as CRES.

Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance. Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Corten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used unpainted. Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains little carbon (0.01%). This creates a very strong but still malleable steel.

Eglin steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost steel for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded strain-hardens to form an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracksbulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.

Lead

Magnesium

Mercury

Nickel

Plutonium

Potassium

Rare Earths

Rhodium

Samarium

SmCo (cobalt); used for permanent magnets in guitar pickups, headphones, satellite transponders, etc.

Scandium

Silver

Sodium[edit]

Titanium[edit]

Main article: Titanium

Tin

Uranium

Zinc

 

Acta Mat. 2011, 59, p. 364