ECCI - Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging

 

The recently improved SEM-ECCI technique can been used to image microstructural features, such as deformation bands, dislocations, twins, and grain boundaries at a large field of view. The fact that this method works in a SEM rather than TEM renders the ECCI approach suited for large scale and statistical mapping of microstructures at the grain and sub-grain scale.

ECCI is in our group mainly carried out in a Zeiss Crossbeam instrument consisting of a Gemini-type field emission gun (FEG) electron column. An acceleration voltage of 10 kV and a working distance of 6 mm are typically used.

ECCI: Overerview of Coupling of Electron Channeling with EBSD: Toward the Quantitative Characterization of Deformation Structures in the SEM
Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Zaefferer, S., Raabe, D.
Coupling of electron channeling with EBSD: Toward the quantitative characterization of deformation structures in the SEM
(2013) JOM, 65 (9), pp. 1229-1236.
The coupling of electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) provides an efficient and fast approach to perform ECCI of crystal defects, such as dislocations, cells, and stacking faults, under controlled diffraction conditions with enhanced contrast.
JOM Vol. 65 No. 9 2013 Overview Electron[...]
PDF-Dokument [812.0 KB]
A study on the geometry of dislocation patterns in the surrounding of nanoindents in a TWIP steel using electron channeling contrast imaging and discrete dislocation dynamics simulations
Zhang, J.-L., Zaefferer, S., Raabe, D.
A study on the geometry of dislocation patterns in the surrounding of nanoindents in a TWIP steel using electron channeling contrast imaging and discrete dislocation dynamics simulations
(2015) Materials Science and Engineering A, 636, pp. 231-242.
Electron channeling contrast imaging under controlled diffraction conditions (cECCI) enables observation of crystal defects, especially dislocations, stacking faults and nano-twins, close to the surface of bulk samples. In this work cECCI has been employed to observe defects around nanoindents into the surface of {100}-, {110}-, {111}-oriented grains in a Fe-22Mn-0.65C (wt%) TWIP steel sample (fcc crystal structure, stacking fault energy ~20. mJ/m) using a cone-spherical indenter.
Materials Science Engin A636 (2015) 231 [...]
PDF-Dokument [1.5 MB]
Introduction to the ECCI method applied to steel
The short paper shows how defect structures in microstructures can be mapped by electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) in conjunction with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD).
ScriptaMater61(2009)737-740.pdf
PDF-Dokument [422.5 KB]
Using ECCI to track hydrogen-induced cracking in Fe-Mn steel
Hydrogen-induced cracking at grain and twin boundaries in an Fe–Mn–C austenitic steel
Hydrogen-embrittlement-Scripta_Fe-Mn-C-H[...]
PDF-Dokument [710.9 KB]
Multistage strain hardening in a high strength and ductile weight-reduced Fe–Mn–Al–C steel
Multistage strain hardening through dislocation substructure and twinning in a high strength and ductile weight-reduced
Fe–Mn–Al–C steel (TRIPLEX)
2012-Acta FeMnAlC.pdf
PDF-Dokument [1.8 MB]
Using the ECCI method in TWIP steel
Gutierrez-Urrutia et al. Mater-Sc-Engin-[...]
PDF-Dokument [2.1 MB]
Dislocation density measurement by electron channeling contrast imaging
The paper shows how a dislocation density measurement can be conducted by electron channeling contrast imaging in a scanning electron microscope.
Scripta 2012-ECCI.pdf
PDF-Dokument [390.3 KB]
ECCI study of a Fe–22 wt.% Mn–0.6 wt.% C TWIP steel
Microstructure evolution during strain hardening of an Fe–22 wt.% Mn–0.6 wt.% C TWIP steel studied by electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI)
Acta 59 (2011) ECCI-Fe-Mn-C.pdf
PDF-Dokument [2.5 MB]
Deformation twinning and planar slip in a TWIP steel
Study of deformation twinning and planar slip in a TWIP steel by Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging in a SEM
Reprint-TWIP-MSF.702-703.523.pdf
PDF-Dokument [2.3 MB]
Revealing the strain-hardening behavior of twinning-induced plasticity steels: Theory, simulations, experiments
Steinmetz, D.R., Jäpel, T , Wietbrock, B., Eisenlohr, P., Gutierrez-Urrutia, I., Saeed-Akbari, A., Hickel, T., Roters, F., Raabe, D.
Revealing the strain-hardening behavior of twinning-induced plasticity steels: Theory, simulations, experiments
(2013) Acta Materialia, 61 (2), pp. 494-510.
Acta Materialia 61 (2013) 494 Strain har[...]
PDF-Dokument [1.8 MB]
Fe-Mn-C TWIP steel studied via EBSD and ECCI
ICOTOM 2011: ECCI applications to TWIP steel
Study of deformation twinning and planar slip in a TWIP steel by Electron Channeling Contrast Imaging in a SEM
MSF.702-703.523.pdf
PDF-Dokument [1.6 MB]
ECCI on TWIP steels of different grain size
Scripta 2012-Viewpoint-High-Mn.pdf
PDF-Dokument [797.9 KB]

 

Acta Mat. 2011, 59, p. 364